The god Tir is the original creator god who became replaced by Odin in Norse mythology. Tir, or Tiw (in Anglo-Saxon, hence Tiw’s day) was not the benevolent creator of the Christian church, but a warrior god akin to Mars. The appearance of Tiwaz in any reading points to battles, competition and dynamic energy. In ancient times, the appearance of this rune would almost certainly have signified actual physical battle and the preparation associated with it – sharpening of swords and axes, making bows and arrows, stocking up on food and seeing to the animals. This is unlikely today, but the analogy can be stretched.
Tiwaz shows that the person being read is about to embark on an enterprise that with need a great deal of energy – moral, physical or both. The enterprise will be competitive in some way, whether in business, the courts of law, or in the form of moral argument one needs to win. If the person is involved in business dealings then Tiwaz implies that there are likely boardroom battles ahead and that it will be necessary to be well prepared. “Winning” is the clue to understanding this rune: blood may have to be spilled but victory must be assured.
When Tiwaz is drawn reversed, it signifies that the person is in a rather weak frame of mind, lacking any real will power or motivation. It implies a certain expectant laziness, as if the world owed them a living and everything would simply turn up through no effort of their own. If the question concerns business, then things will not get better until the person gets a grip on themselves. In affairs of love it indicates difficulties ahead and a possible breakdown of communications, while in health it shows that the person may be in a poor physical state.
- Interpreting the Runes XVI ~ Sowelu ~ Sigel ~ Sun (christophersmark.wordpress.com)
- Interpreting the Runes XV ~ Algiz ~ Elk ~ Protection (christophersmark.wordpress.com)
Understanding the Runes
Above all, the runes are steeped in nature and symbolize the power exhibited by different elements of nature—the wind, the sun, ice and rain for example. Therefore it is impossible to understand the runes by adopting an intellectual approach. The peoples of northern Europe led lives that were extremely close to nature and dominated by these elemental forces. As in many other ancient cultures, nature and the gods were considered to be one and the same thing. Each god symbolized a different element of the natural world and was believed to be responsible for the creation and continuation of his or her natural phenomenon. For example, to the Germanic peoples, thunder was believed to be an action of the god Thor.
This can be quite a hard concept for the modern mind that is trained in logical, empirical thing to grasp, but it is essential for understanding and using the runes effectively. In ancient times, the runes, by symbolizing these elemental forces, allowed the user to make direct contact with the forces of nature, and thus perhaps to gain some insight into how the patterns of life were unfolding, so that they could take the necessary steps to ensure survival. Life at that time was an extremely tenuous affair, and natural forces could cause death and disaster to those who were unprepared. To a certain extent, this still holds true today, witness the large scale destruction caused by hurricane Katrina, but we have such a sophisticated social system that, to a great extent we are protected from the real chaos that nature can cause. Early peasant cultures were not; they were at nature’s mercy.
One of the most important things to remember about the runes is that the wisdom which the tradition contained was handed down from one generation to another orally – largely in the form of poetry to make it easier to remember. In ancient times, this sort of knowledge was not considered to be for everyone’s eyes so it was never committed to writing.
The shaman, who had been initiated into the knowledge of the runes, played a hugely important role in those times. He or she was the spiritual member of the community who gave each rune character its symbolic meaning and thereby it’s mystical power. The shaman was the most powerful figure in the tribal community as it was he, or she, who could determine and cure illness, foster fertility, ensure a good harvest, and solve many other concerns that were essential to everyday life, perhaps and most notably protecting the tribe from its enemies – both the human and the animal kind.
For many cultures and many thousands of years, the shaman was the person who could bridge the gap between the world of the gods and that of ordinary humans and use their psychic ability to communicate with the sprit world. In that sense, they were conduits for nature itself, considering the gods and the elemental forces of nature as one and the same thing. In many parts of the world, shamans made a connection with the other world when they were in a trancelike state induced by drugs – especially those with hallucinogenic powers – or by dancing, fasting or conducting rituals.
Shamans were an integral part of the culture of the runes, yet they were especially selected, trained, and set apart from other people in the community. Both physical and mental powers had to be well above average in order to perform many of the rites and ceremonies involved. Although revered for their knowledge, shamans also inspired considerable awe through their apparently supernatural powers. In many parts of the world shamanism still exists, and shamans still live in self-imposed isolation living on a separate plane, wrapped in their magical universe.
It was not uncommon for shamans to be in some way physically impaired at a time when it was almost impossible for anyone else to be crippled or survive. For ordinary people, disability was socially unacceptable. On a practical level, it was almost certain to lead to an early death and there was no form of social welfare in existence to make life more manageable. If you could not hunt or gather crops for the community, you were an outcast. The only possible existence for a disabled person was to become a shaman – if he or she had the strength for such a demanding position. Even so, they would never be accepted into the day-to-day affairs of the community, regardless of their hugely influential role in community life.
The role of shaman was kept in the family, passed down from generation to generation – from mother to daughter and from father to son.
The runes are derived from natural forces, which the observant can see everywhere they look: in the shape of a stream as it flows through a field, at the point where the branch of a tree forks, or the random shape of stones on a beach. It is as if nature talks to us directly in the shapes of the runes. The knowledge they impart is also all around us, as long as we have the eyes to see and the mind to understand.
The runes have no history of being used in fantastic or magical enterprises; their powers are grounded firmly in the natural world. They do not give political dominance or unearthly powers on the battlefield. Like nature itself, they are pragmatic and down to earth.
To this day, our language has a number of little sayings that express the underlying philosophy of the runes – such as “nothing comes for free” and “what goes around comes around”. If a king wished to win a battle and gain more territory, this desire would bring greatly increased responsibilities; if a peasant wished for more cattle he would know that this would create considerably more work for him. The people who used runes realized that there is always a price to pay for any gain in life. Because of this they took a less demanding approach to life than many people do in today’s world.
Wealth is a comfort to everyone,
Yet each must give freely,
If he will glory in Heaven.
– Poem of Fehu
I’ve blogged about how I use the ancient Viking Runes; as a decision making tool to guide me toward the “course of right action” for the day or specific to a certain event, for insight into my destiny, and even for insight regarding past lives. The Runes were prevalent some two thousand years ago and are more relative to us today. Like the images of the Tarot deck and the hexagrams of the I Ching, Runes are profound keys to personal empowerment, self-development and spiritual awareness.
Runes are an ancient form of writing that was used widely for thousands of years across northern Europe. A great deal of mystery still surrounds their origins and use. According to Viking tradition, the word “rune” means a whispered secret.
Did you know that the days of the week are named after Norse gods and goddesses? Tuesday stands for Tiw’s day, Wednesday is so called after the great god Odin, Thursday is named after the powerful god Thor, and Friday takes its name from the goddess Freya.
It is from the Norse culture that the runes come, and it was in the old Teutonic world of northern Europe that the runes were venerated. They were the very soul of life for the ancient Teutonic people, and encapsulated their entire mystical and mythological beliefs.
To divine, in the original sense of the word, is literally to discover higher insight, the workings of fate, or the “will of the gods,” as it applies to our lives. Divination systems, like the Runes, are based upon sets of meaningful signs, omens that we “randomly” choose and interpret for their personal message to us. You are probably wondering, “How could this possibly work?” The traditional Norse answer would be that in the Web of Wyrd (fate, destiny), all things and events resonate in a profound and luminous way and that the Runes faithfully record the signature of the energy movements underlying our own unique fate path at the moment of consultation. The scientific rationalism of the West generally does not admit that events that are not causally related can have an underlying connection, but the idea is no longer disreputable, even in scientific terms, because the concept of randomness has been subject to scrutiny in modern times. From my college Psychology 101 I learned that in the 1950’s, Carl Jung introduced the concept of “synchronicity”, which he defined as “meaningful coincidence” and some quantum theorists have supported his conviction that “chance” events not physically or causally linked may nonetheless spring from a deeper ordering principle.
During ancient times, divination was of course attributed to the activity of gods and spirits. Whether we regard such entities as real or metaphorical, it is vitally important to know that in northern Europe the highest of all gods, Odin (Germanic translation Woden or Wotan and giving his name to Wednesday), was himself the discoverer and lord of the Runes. Odin in fact provides the model for master of the runic system. In Norse myth Odin goes on a quest for what is really a code for the process of looking within and attaining therein knowledge of all the worlds. The Runes are the physical tokens of his hard-won wisdom, offered to those “to whom they may avail.”
The Runes are said to embody the wisdom of Odin through the connections between the sign and the meaning associated with that sign, which come from three ancient “Rune poems.” In Norse myth, Odin was the god and patron of the oral tradition, so the wisdom of the Runes and the accumulated folk ways they represent can be seen as flowing from him and various guises of the Goddess, from whose springs of knowledge Odin drew. For example, the image of the first rune, Fehu, is cattle. The corresponding associations are assets, wealth and gain. In ancient Norse culture, you were worth only as much as your head of cattle. In a Rune reading, each rune is interpreted as an omen of personal significance – thus Fehu signifies material luck and gain and it is titled “Abundance” in most guide books of Rune translation. The appearance of Fehu during a Rune reading in the present or near future evokes at least a cheer of some sort. But fehu’s association with wealth, good fortune and greed evoke far deeper mythical and legendary themes in traditional rune lore, which I’ll be sharing in an upcoming blog.
For now, I leave you with hopefully a new understanding of how the Runes can teach us self-mastery. They are a guide to action, a remedy for misfortune, and a tool for promoting empowerment, fulfillment, prosperity and peace. This is at least the spirit in which the Runes function for me, today.